How do human stampedes happen

Crowd crush: What happens in a human stampede

As he explains, however, that may not solve the problem. People lying on top of him screamed with fear as they burned and suffocated.

how do human stampedes happen

Now, imagine you're just a single grain of sand, somewhere in the middle. Early indications are that the most recent disaster in Mecca was a progressive crowd collapse, seemingly caused by the meeting of two crowds that were moving against each other — something that should simply never be allowed to happen.

In Graphics: Tragic stampede during Haj pilgrimage at Mecca

In mosh pits, security is often positioned over a barrier at the front to lift people out if they are being crushed. At some point in your life, you may have experienced this phenomenon. Think of it this way: Like everybody else, we headed in. As many as 96 were killed and 766 injured, with fans tearing holes in the fences in an effort to save other fans. If you start finding yourself in a crowd surge, wait for the surge to come, go with it, and move sideways. Galea is Australian by birth and an astrophysicist by training, having originally specialised in the fluid dynamics inside stars.

how do human stampedes happen

Good crowd control may involve having someone in a raised position directing people with a megaphone, as well as properly thought-out overflow and a lack of obstructions or choke points.

In 1990, 1,426 people were crushed to death, in 1994 it was 270, in 1998 it was 118 at least , in 2001 it was 35, in 2003 it was 14, in 2004 it was 251, in 2005 it was three, in 2006 it was 360 at least.

They panic because they are dying.

how do human stampedes happen

They check their pockets and go home, telling their friends how — for a minute there — they were nearly scared. Since 1999, crush accidents killing 10 or more people have happened on at least 44 recorded occasions, or about one every four months.

They make unpleasant viewing.

how do human stampedes happen

The challenges, as always, are the pinch points. When the flow starts happening, all those in the "fluid" start to move with it.

how do human stampedes happen

Share on Facebook. The problem for crowd management generally, however, is that no two places are alike. This can quickly lead to tragedy. This is where things start to get dangerous.

Hajj crush: how crowd disasters happen, and how they can be avoided

If you are knocked over, try to fall in a rigid foetal position with your arms over your face and chest, as Vargas did when he managed to survive the deadly crowd at Station Nightclub. They happen because no one stops them. It could be a hallway, like the one at Station Nightclub. A redesign of the whole complex could, Still believes, make the Hajj safe, but Galea has his doubts.