Provide conversation stems on a poster board or notecards:.
Guiding Discussions with Questioning One major issue in implementing classroom discussions is assuring that all students participate and that a few students do not dominate the discussion. Discussion is important to learning in all disciplines because it helps students process information rather than simply receive it. She then asked if anyone had seen prejudice. Through an active, reciprocal exchange, teaching can strengthen learning how to learn.
Lecture is generally defined as the verbal imparting of knowledge. How students share—show of hands, presentation of ideas, taking turns, or open debate Need to respect everyone's opinion—learning to agree to disagree Amount and type of preparation expected Monitoring style of teacher—how the teacher responds if the debate gets out of control or off track Type of concluding activity—how the students or teacher will summarize to ensure maximum application of knowledge Concluding Activity The debate should be stopped before the end of class for a summarizing or concluding activity.
The Socratic Seminar is a terrific model to incorporate into your classroom. Learn how to do a mathematical procedure requires a more linear approach.
Of course, in assignments such as daily math work, the directions are simple: This is called initiation-response-evaluation, 'I-R-E,' or recitation. It is imperative that teachers understand students' prior knowledge about the topic of the lecture.
Staying on the topic is the greatest challenge for students and, therefore, also for teachers. Debate a controversial issue based on an expository piece. Primary students easily jump to unrelated topics, but the positive side is that with a few teacher comments they can be easily guided back to the topic!
Discussion Guidelines Preparing students to participate in discussions is essential. However, nonparticipation because of student inattention should not be tolerated. Addressing teacher-directed questions or comments to inactive discussion participants may solve part of the problem, but it may also be necessary to set rules that limit the number of times a student can speak or to simply ask the student dominating the discussion to become a listener for a period of the time.
Another useful strategy is providing handouts. Another important factor is the speaking skill of the teacher.
Ideas from the Field. Two to six is ideal. Culminating or Summarizing Summarizing activities enhance the value of a discussion. Asking questions does, however, improve factual knowledge. There is limited time or a scarcity of necessary materials. Teachers are also advised to:.
Interestingly enough, the level of classroom management is quite varied. Always debrief students; it is the most important part of a discussion, the time to summarize and synthesize.
Think of emotional pleas as a seasoning—a dash is enough. No matter how carefully you ask students for their attention as you give directions, some of them may well be off into a dream world of their own or somehow distracted by the actions of others.