Walker, B. Folke, and B. Below I present a series of Stommel diagrams. Gunderson, L. Resilience is a property of these linked social-ecological systems SES. Email Format html text. An exploratory framework for the empirical measurement of resilience. In separate realms and identifying different mechanisms, the work of Minsky and Holling suggests instability cannot be avoided, as stability creates instability.
Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Adaptability and Transformability in Social-Ecological Systems. The paper provides an rich history of how the innovative oceanographer Henry Stommel created his diagrams to emphasize the cross-scale dynamics of the ocean See figure below , and how his diagram was adapted by biological oceanographers.
People are part of the natural world. This understanding can be used to help navigate instability, and it highlights the value of working to create new theories to understand, analyze, and navigate social-ecological instability — something that we are working on at the Stockholm Resilience Centre.
Even in the absence of disturbance, gradually changing conditions, e.
Scheffer, M. Ecology and Society 9: These continual outbreaks require investment in pest control, which decreases the profitability of the logging. The financial turmoil of the last few years has shown that despite economists dreams of a great moderation due to wise regulation, regulators and markets have not been able to tame the destabilizing dynamics of global markets.
For example, logging and forest can lead to more investment in timber mills and towns and the simplified forest, which is more vulnerable to insect outbreaks. Tiffany Vance and Ronald Doel have traced the history of the Stommel diagram from physical oceanography into biology, in their 2010 paper Graphical Methods and Cold War Scientific Practice: Schematic diagram of the spectral distribution of sea level From Stommel 1963.
His resilience theory focuses on sudden changes and collapses in ecosystems and how the ecosystem adapts. Resilience Assessment. He has introduced important ideas in the application of ecology and evolution, including resilience, adaptive management, and population. Foley, C.